Validating national curriculum indicators
- 7 Indicators of Curriculum The curriculum interacts with teachers and students in complex and important ways.Classroom behavior is inseparable from curricu- lum.In a few states, for example, New York, state guidelines have always been an important determinant of the intended curriculum.As states become more active in school reform and assessment, state guidelines can be expected to play an impor- tant role in an increasing number of states.As for the content of examinations, it also is believer] to influence classroom instruction to a considerable degree (Resnick and Resnick, 1985; Romberg, 1986~; hence, test content needs to be monitored an well.When the term intended curriculum is used alone in this chapter, it refers to any or all of these three levels of the formalized expression of curriculum, unless specific reference is made to a particular form, such as state guidelines.
A curriculum may or may not provide incentives for teachers to master specific teaching techniques, such as laboratory experi- ments or the use of current events in creating applied mathematics problems.
After some consideration, the committee suggests the following curriculum blocks as useful to consider as integral units: grades K-5, grades 6-8, the high school literacy curriculum, and the high school curriculum for college-bound students.
The comrn~ttee proposes that indicators for mathematics and science be developed for each of these grade clusters.
Regarding the second aspect of the intended curriculum, there is much research evidence that the content of textbooks importantly influences the content presented to the student (Goldstein, 1978; Stake and Eas Tey, 1978; 122 INDICATORS OF SCIENCE AND MATNEMA TICS EDUCATION Goodiad, 1984~.
Therefore, an indicator of the content of textbooks needs to be part of any monitoring system for science and mathemat- ics education.